dinsdag 12 januari 2016

8 years reflection on IICD

Reflecting on 8 years of working at IICD is not easy, especially when you have only one hand, or
better 1 finger to type (like I have at the moment). So first I started to write them by hand in an old
fashioned, analogue way!

8 years of IICD starts and ends with a company: Smart Resultancy. 9 years ago when I came back
from Zambia, where I worked for 3 years as training centre manager of CHEP, a Zambian HIV/AIDS
NGO, I started my own company to combine Development and Organizational Development,
because I wanted to continue in development and finding a job in the sector was not easy. I talked
with many people about the concept of the company, Smart Resultancy. One day I was called for a
job interview. I was in a meeting so I asked “Could you send an email, I am in a meeting at the
moment”. It was a job interview at IICD, but I never applied for a job there. I had even never heard
Photo credits Gareth Bentley
of it. But to combine ICT and Development was exactly the work that I had in mind. So I went to the
interview and got the job “Officer Knowledge sharing Zambia and Ghana” and closed the company
without doing one assignment.

My first day on the job was also special. Not in the office, but in Lusaka, Zambia with Olaf. Directly
for a two week visit back in Zambia were I still had many friends and good memories. That first day
we visited 4 project partners with Olaf and Kevin, our long time taxi driver. At half past 2 I asked Olaf  “When do we have lunch?” Olaf’s answer everyone knows “I don’t eat lunch”. My answer “but I need lunch!” So we stopped for bananas and cookies. And since that day I always bring “Snelle Jelle” with me in case there is no opportunity to have lunch.

I have always enjoyed working for IICD and especially with all our project and technical partners in
the country. It was a great pleasure and
privilege to support you throughout the years. I am very
proud of those partners that have really transformed their own region or country.
After ten years working in the private ICT sector in The Netherlands as a business consultant, it was a
great opportunity to work in a sector where you really can have impact at organizational level, but
Photo credits IICD
especially at personal level. At IICD we were able to accelerate change for many people and

In the various roles I have had over the years, the key thing for me was being a broker. Facilitate
between people with ideas, support bringing ideas forward, and connect people with each other to
improve ideas and make them happen. As a catalyst I could bring some people to that next level
through capacity building, exposure to new ideas and funding opportunities. It is not a secret recipe
that works for all. It is like cooking: some people do much more with the same ingredients than

Change and technology as an enabler has been a thread throughout my career. As a bridge between
users and technologists. Technology not on its own as a driver, but the people that use it, to create
and shape their own future and the futures of the people around them. I do believe that technology
can amplify development in a lasting way if implemented in the right way.
IICD was searching for that right way. A way that combines participatory user centred design, local
context, local ownership, sustainability and a local eco system to support the appropriate solutions.
Not always the most sophisticated innovative solution, but one that fits the local needs and could
last also after project funding stops.

Now IICD will close (#endofanera), I would like to continue with the same philosophy and start my
own company again. So as of January 2016 Smart Resultancy will be operational again. This time
with a focus on social change in Education and the transition of young people from school to work
(youth employment). Technology will be important, but the people that use it even more. Smart
Resultancy will support organisations that want to transform the lives of young people using
technology as an enabler with principles like local ownership, human centred design, social business
models, and learning by doing in mind. I would like to continue to work with you in the future!
Martine Koopman


dinsdag 22 september 2015

ICT4D: 4 years Connect4Change in Ghana

This blog will share the results of 4 years Connect4Change in Ghana.

In 2011 the Connect4Change (C4C) consortium was formed. The Connect4Change consortium is built by Dutch development and ICT specialised organisations including IICD, Akvo, Cordaid, Edukans and ICCO. Connect4Change seeks innovative solutions based on internet and mobile phones to accelerate the achievement of development goals and bring poverty and exclusion to an end. One of the sectors under Connect4Change is ICT in Education. 

IICD facilitates the design process in the preparation phase and build the technical and training capacity of local partners in ICT in Education. Edukans provides strategic advice on Educational approaches. Strategic objective of the ICT for Education programme is improve the quality and equity of the education system through the integration of ICT in primary, secondary education, teacher and vocational training with a special focus on girls. The ICT for Education Programme is implemented by IICD together with Edukans, Akvo and Text to Change in 8 countries including Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Bolivia and Peru. 

We do this in collaboration with local implementing partners and local technical support partners. Through these partnerships we are able to reach out to more schools. 

The programme will be implemented by civil society- and grassroots organisations that are specialized in education and are directly working with the target groups: 

Implementing partners
Our local implementation partners: Savana Signatures, Presbyterian Church of Ghana, PEPS-C, Wadep and Ibis in Ghana

  • Building capacity teachers and school administration to improve teaching and learning 
  • Integrate Pedagogical capacity building of schools to integrate ICT in the classroom 
  • Improve teaching & learning materials (modify existing or develop new educational content) 
  • Use of mobile technology to inform large groups on education related topics in an efficient and effective manner using an interactive voice response (IVR) system for school management committees and head masters to inform illiterate parents about educational issues relating to their children. 
Technical support partners 

The program will be supported by Edukans and IICD and by a group of local technical support partners who will assist in technical advice, training, knowledge sharing and lobbying activities: 

  • BoldTech Solutions (assist the programme with technical (ICT) training and advice; research and lobby) 
  • GINKS (assist the programme with organizing relevant knowledge sharing events and lobby) 
  • IBIS (assist the programme with pedagogical training and advice) 
  • TechSupport (developed the school management information system) 
What did we want to achieve? 
The Connect4Change consortium promotes sustainable development in education by using ICT. It aims at “Improved quality and equality of the education system through the integration of ICT in primary, secondary and teacher education and vocational training with a special focus on empowerment of women and girls”. The programme will contribute to MFSII in strengthening the civil society in their competencies to integrate ICT in teaching, learning and management processes and to improve the learning performance and employment opportunities of young people, improving their conditions to reduce poverty. 


  • More teachers and schools integrate ICT in the teaching and learning process to improve the quality of education 
  • More schools and support offices are using ICT applications to improve administration and management 
  • More young people experiencing better business skills and employment opportunities through the use of ICT 
  • Successful ICT applications and methods for education are being used for lobby and advocacy to influence integration of ICT in the Education policy 
For each C4C intervention strategy the following themes will be addressed: 

1. Improved quality of education Integration of ICT in primary and secondary education: There is much scope for the civil society partners to assist teachers of primary and secondary schools in integrating ICT in the teaching and learning processes in order to promote active learning. The integration of ICT in education offers the opportunity to use and develop interactive multimedia materials that are relevant for the pupils (local content). This process will be supported by intensive capacity development in terms of pedagogic approaches and technical capacities of teachers and students, combined with the set-up of computer labs and facilities to use ICT directly in the class room. In principle, Internet facilities will be only used where easily available and accessible in terms of costs. As a result, teachers are motivated and trained to implement qualitative and sustainable education. 

2. Improved relevance – better link to job market ICT to support business skills and literacy of youths and adults: there is a need to integrate ICT applications to enhance business skills and literacy training of youths in vocational training. In this area, key activities include the integration and development of enhanced training methodologies combined with computer-based training in applications relevant for the development of business skills at vocational schools. Given the low levels of education, most applications will be developed with multi-media solutions. 

3. Using ICT to strengthen education management: Introduction of basic ICT applications supporting education management. In this area, the social innovation process focuses on improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of the education process. At the level of schools, ICT supports planning, monitoring and administration of physical and human resources, contributing to more efficient use of scarce resources by school principals and teachers. It also allows better reporting and communication with local and district education authorities, contributing to better planning and lobbying for government resources. Areas where ICT can support include reporting systems, planning and monitoring, timetabling, administration and communication. Technologies applied will primarily focus on networked computers and where possible basic e-mail communication solutions. 

 4. Policy Influencing C4C uses this intervention strategy for all activities supporting knowledge sharing, relevant data collection and lobby by multi-stakeholder networks on ICT for education issues such as knowledge sharing and learning. Herewith C4C supports a multi-stakeholder network GINKS. The partner network will share challenges and achievements and jointly learn to gain experience in integration of ICT in education programmes. C4C supported network jointly advocate for effective education policy development, planning and effective financial and human resource allocation for the education sector by integrating a range of ICT applications in compatible manners. This strategy serves to seek collaboration with the government to integrate ICT in the education sector at large. 

How did we achieve this? 
During Connect4Change we introduced ICT through a step-by-step approach. Building first capacity of local partners who would later implement the program at school level. Interventions at C4C level for local partners in Ghana 

Preparation phase
In Ghana the C4C program for ICT in Education started in 2011 with the preparation phase of the program were IICD and Edukans started with the partner selection for the program and invited them together with additional stakeholders of the Education sector for a stakeholder meeting. Preparation phase Problem analysis and target group consultation at the partner level IICD and Edukans base their in-country activities on a sound analysis of needs and problems in the country and sector involved. In 2011 the local Ghana Network for Knowledge Sharing (GINKS) conducted a research on the current situation on ICT in Education in Ghana. This is an important first step to identify the target group’s information and communication needs and gaps and a clear definition of the local context. 

Round table 
In June 2011 IICD prepared and facilitated a roundtable workshop in collaboration GINKS and BoldTech Solutions (a local ICT company). At this workshop, 33 key stakeholders from the education sector in Ghana came together and reviewed the problem analyses that was done by GINKS, subsequently identifying long-term challenges and opportunities. A shared vision on ICT in Education in Ghana was developed. During a three to four day period of reflection, analysis and priority setting, different scenarios and ICT4D project ideas were generated and discussed. After the roundtable workshop, the stakeholders bring the project ideas back to their various organisations and re-examine them in light of their individual mission and activities. 

Solution Design 
Workshop A solution design workshop is a four to five day event in which the project ideas that emerged during the Roundtable workshop are brought to a higher level of development. The workshops are executed by IICD’s Technical Advisor, in cooperation with local technical consultants. Partners learn techniques for seeking further information and tools, ways to sustain their operations and how they might better serve their beneficiaries in the long term with the use of ICTs. IICD stimulates demand-driven and locally tailored processes of technological solution design. 

Technical Advice 
Throughout the entire process, IICD the country manager, the Edukans country coordinator and the IICD technical advisor are available to provide strategic and practical advice. Support at this stage tends to be very specific, such as assisting a partner in finding an appropriate technical solution for an issue identified in phase. Also during this phase, technical advisors have one-on-one sessions with partner organisations, for example, to refine and validate a technology solution that has been proposed; to discuss how partners will train teachers or school administrators in the use of the technology; or to finalise the activity plan and budget. IICD moved in 2013 from a technical advisor in the office in The Hague to a local technical advisor who could conduct more on site support and training on the job. This advice will become more advanced during the different phases of the project. Technical advice is given during the preparation phase, the foundation phase, the integration phase and the institutional embedding phase. 

Foundation phase 

Trainer-of-trainer workshop 
In each country, IICD develops and trains a national pool of technical resource persons who provide on-the-ground support to project partners and end-users. IICD conducts ‘Train the trainer’ workshops for two types of main resource persons: local training support partners and technical officers in our partner-organisations. For the first group, The train the trainer workshops focus on strengthening the facilitation and training skills of the local support partners, which they need to be able to adequately address capacity gaps in ICT4D partner organisations. In the workshop participants get to know different training methodologies, learn how to conduct an assessment to identify training needs, and how to develop appropriate training plans and performance indicators for different target groups. For the second group, the technical officers in our partner organisations, IICD provides a workshop in which the officers learn how to train non-technical people, such as teachers and school administrators in the use of the ICT solution. Practical learning-by-doing sessions show the technical officers how to transfer their knowledge and how they can enhance their facilitation skills. 

Technical update seminars 
Software tools evolve rapidly, as do hardware and systems, procurement methods, licensing practices and so forth. Our partners must keep abreast of these developments if they are to make informed decisions about critical technology related issues. IICD supports national partners in this by organising regular technical update seminars. The aim of these seminars is to raise awareness and increase knowledge about trends and programme-appropriate developments in ICT. 

ICT4D learning workshop 
The ICT4D Learning workshop is an annual knowledge sharing network workshop that bring together project partners working in ICT in Education under the Connect4Change programme in Ghana. 2 participants from each implementing partner + 2 representatives from the schools they work with (headmaster and teacher). This workshop will support reflection and experience sharing between project partners. 

Coaching and advice 
IICD Country manager and Edukans country representative advice and coaching during the implementation phase gives partners the confidence, knowledge and skills to put their formulated plans into action. IICD is available to provide specific advice, for example, on ICT policies, IT resources, or on the hands-on use of applications. Next to the technical and operational support, IICD country managers play an active role in strengthening the overall organisational capacity of project partners and linking project partners to potential new opportunities. This advice will become more advanced during the different phases of the project. Coaching and advice is given during the preparation phase, the foundation phase, the integration phase and the institutional embedding phase. 

Monitoring and Evaluation 
All projects are described on the C4C/AKVO platform. Two-monthly updates will be placed on the platform by the project partner. Edukans will provide a 6-monthly narrative report on progress in activities and outputs per country. IICD will provide a 6 monthly report on C4C activities (knowledge sharing, capacity development and advice), TTC will provide a 6 monthly report on C4C activities (mobile) Cross-Country Learning event C4C facilitates international exchanges of experiences. A cross-country events afor each sector is organized where partners learn from experiences in other countries and give one another advice. The event takes place every two years. 

Integration phase 
In the Education Program IICD and Edukans uses the TPACK model 

Active Learning 
A Trainer of trainer in interactive peer-to-peer learning methods (Prequip) is provided by Edukans to partners who will work with the schools (PK). Teachers start delivering lessons in the classroom with basic ICT enabled methods. Interactive peer-to-peer learning (Bequip) in introduced with video observation to improve classroom delivery (TPK). 

Impact study 
During the program an external impact study is conducted by Jigsaw Consult Ltd to measure in a two year research the result of the program. The first field research was conducted in 2013 and 2015. The results will be published in October 2015.

Coaching and Change Management activities 
IICD will provide active and continuous advice, coaching and capacity development on ICT-related activities of partner organisations. Edukans will provide advice to partners on the aspects of pedagogical aspects in education. 

Edukans will assist in the marketing aspects of the Ghanaian education program in The Netherlands. IICD will advice partners on possible up-scaling of the education program in collaboration with other donor agencies and governmental agencies in Ghana. 

Capacity Building Workshops 
Capacity building workshops and on-the-job training and support will be conducted based on demand driven needs of the project implementation partners. In this phase the efforts will move from basic ICT to content development, integrating pedagogical aspects in ICT in de classroom and implementation of a school management information system. 

Institutional Embedding phase 
At this stage of the process, IICD assists partners in integrating ICT into their organisation beyond the specified pilot or project period. Oftentimes, far-reaching changes in organisational structure and culture are needed to effectively integrate ICT in such a way that it leads to substantial and lasting improvements. Change management, however, raises questions, such as how to develop a long-term vision and strategy, how to align people within an organisation, and how to manage human resources. During this phase, IICD also helps partners mobilise resources to scale up or leverage project activities. In some cases, IICD and experienced partners are requested to assist other organisations or institutions with similar processes to integrate ICTs into programmes. 

Martine Koopman
IICD's Country Manager Ghana

donderdag 14 augustus 2014

ICT4Teacher presentation Global Media Forum Deutsche Welle

1st July 2014 in Bonn

During the Global Media Forum 2014 IICD was invited by Unicef and the ICT4D Centre of Royal Holloway, University London to be part of a panel on ICT4Kids. At the event the reportChildren, ICT and Development was launched. I was one of the people interviewed for the book. The full session can be followed through this audio link.
Some additional information on the session: Information and Communication Technologies for Development, also kn2014-07-01 15.00.57own as ICT4D, is an exciting, young interdisciplinary field of practice and study. 

BonnSome argue that it could revolutionize how international development initiatives are run, offering tools such as SMS and social media to create direct engagement with project participants, beneficiaries and communities. In a recent report produced by the University of London’s ICT4D Centre at Royal Holloway for UNICEF, 35 experts in the area of child-related ICT4D were asked to discuss what worked and what didn’t. The interviews showed a strong consensus that participatory approaches increased the chances of project success. They also revealed a rising trend in involving young people in particular in more participatory forms, not just of project governance, but also more broadly in social and political discussions. Expert interviewees nominated notably inspiring projects involving children and youths.

Martine Koopman
IICD, The Netherlands
Kumar, Davinder
Head of Communications (West & Central Africa), Plan International, UK
Lawrie, James
Senior Education Adviser, Save the Children, UK
Poveda, Sammia Christina
PhD Researcher, ICT4D Centre & UNESCO Chair in ICT4D Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Walton, Philip
COO, BRCK, Kenya
Kleine, Dr. Dorothea
Director, ICT4D Centre, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

My presentation:

vrijdag 6 juni 2014

The ICT4E Programme in Western Uganda: ICT in the English classroom

On Monday 2nd June 2014 I made a visit to our ICT4E programme in Kasese and Kaberole district. This programme is part of the connect4change programme. Local partners are Computers for Schools Uganda (CFSU in Kaberone) and Rwenzori Information Centers Network (RIC-NET in Kasese). Together with Charles Kaliba and John Silco Murugahara of RIC-NET  and Stella of CFSU I visited two schools and a teacher training college. The ICT4E programme consist in both districts of 2 secondary schools and one Teacher training college for primary school teachers. The programme is building capacity of English language teachers to integrate ICT in the teaching of English. Teachers create their own lessons and deliver this lesson to the class with a projector and a laptop. Capacity is built to provide teachers with methodology to prepare multimedia lessons and deliver them in the classroom.

My first visit was to the St Theresa Girls Secondary school in Nsenyi in Kasese district. At the school 6 English teachers including head of department Felix Kule participate in the programme. Felix delivered a lesson about nouns while we were visiting. One of the students: “ Lessons are now more attractive and these days I like English more than other subjects”. Teacher and students were really motivated to use the ICT.

The programme also organizes content creation workshops: CFSU or RICNET work with the teachers to make more interactive content and practice together the delivery of the lessons. The lessons include text, sound, images and sometimes video. They also use role play and assignments with the students. One of the teachers mentioned “the integration of ICT tools in the teaching process has helped to deliver lessons with different methods to cater for visual learners (text and illustrations) and auditive lessons (to listen to the right pronouncation). 

The second school we visited was difficult to reach. The bridge in the value had been wiped away in 2013, but the emergency bridge only two weeks ago. The school was not reachable by car. We used the “boda-boda” at the back of the motorbike we took the mountain road. A steep footpath not really suitable for a motorbike.

The Kilembe Secondary school delivered also a lesson with the project about a poem. The teacher was not trained by RicNet but by the head of department. He was a bit nervous, but that was not really strange while three people are using a video camera in your classroom including me, a musungu. The headmaster told me also that they were using a school management information system that saved them much time. It was locally developed and the school had acquired it recently. 

The way back we did not use the
mountain road. The boda-boda brought us to the destroyed bridge. They took the mountain road and we crossed the river using a temporary emergency bridge. Than they pick us up on the other side to bridge the 2 km destroyed road before we were back at our car.

After an hour we reached Fort Portal were we visited Canon Apollo Core teacher training college were Mwajuma Banuru, the head of the English department. She explained how they train the new teachers in the preparation and delivery of lessons with the use of ICT in English. Their biggest challenge that they can practice at the college, but not yet in the four intern schools were the students will practice in the real primary school classroom.

A long day that started at 6:30 and ended at 18:00 when I arrived in the Rwenzori View Guesthouse in Fort Portal. Just another day in the office!

One day safari in Queen Elisabeth Park

Between eLearning Africa and my visit to the ICT4E programme in Kasese and Kaberole district I had a Saturday to travel from Kampala to Western Uganda (7 hours). On Sunday I was able to visit the Queen Elisabeth Park for an one day safari. My lodge was overlooking the plains, not a bad place to stay at all. In the morning I did a chimpanzee trek in a beautiful gorge. We managed to see some chimpansees, but even without that the hike itself was worth it. Western Uganda has a very nice climate this time of the year. Between 25-30 degrees with cool nights. In the afternoon I did a boottrip to Lake Edwards. A trip with lots of elephants, buffalo’s and hippo’s and thousands of beautiful birds.

donderdag 4 juli 2013

Impressions of eLearning Africa 2013, Windhoek Namibia

29th -31st May the eLearning Africa conference 2013 was held in Windhoek Namibia in the Safari Conference Centre. The eLearning 2013 report (English) is also out (also in French)

These are my impressions of the event.



On the 29th May I attended two pre-conference sessions. In the morning a session World-Class Skills Through Technology for Change and Innovation  led my Microsoft with the buzzwords 21st century skills, professional teacher development, student centred pedagogy. First I thought it was really focusing on Microsoft products. And of course it is a company that wants to make money, but the presentations were about more than Microsoft skills. It encourage students and teachers to think critically and creatively beyond just reproduction. 21st century skills: Way of thinking, Way of working, tools for working and ways of living in the world. 

But if you support the development of humans to a higher education level, they will reach mostly a higher income and will become consumers. So Microsoft does see this as a long term investment to increased the skill level op people in developing countries. During the session Microsoft told more about the different programmes they have in Africa within Education. For example Microsoft4Africa: improving africa’s competitiveness through strategic partnerships (building capacity, increasing access and innovation), Microsoft IT Academy, a life long learning model to bridge skill gap between education and todays technology centered job market. It provides trainings, curriculum, certification, linkages/partnerships and resources to educational institutes. Partners in Learning. With lots of resources for students and educators presented by Phil Oduor, V-philod@microsoft.com. Project Badiliko a collaboration of British Council and Microsoft. Project Badiliko builds digital hubs at schools and community centres across Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Ghana and Nigeria and provides a cascade model of professional development for teachers and school leaders.  Agile EMIS (James Curry, (James.curry@agilelearning.com) was a presentation from a Microsoft partner about educational management information systems. The EMIS is implemented in Uganda on large scale at school level (PC, smart phone or mobile (attendance collection), district and national level for Ministry of Education.

In the afternoon I followed a practical workshop A Practical Introduction to OER4Schools: Supporting Interactive Teaching of Mathematics and Science a collaboration of Chalimbana Basic School, Zambia and University of Cambridge, UK (Abel Makonga, Chalimbana Basic School, Zambia and Bjoern Hassler, University of Cambridge, UK. www.oer4schools.org


 The official opening of the conference The Ghanaian blogger Mac-Jordan Degadjor (@MacJordaN) as representative of the African Youth was most impressive.

a solar container at exhibition

I follow him already for years and had the opportunity to meet him in person. Theme of the opening was: Learning and Innovation: In the Cloud and on the Ground with a Spirit of Ubuntu.

Next morning during the plenary Towards an (Upwardly) Mobile Africa? The speech of Donald Clark, Is Mobile the New Pen and Pencil?  was thought provoking. Tablets are useless unless with keyboard, mobile learning is gps for learning. Attention span of youth only 7 seconds! 

The presentation of Monica Weber of the Worldbank gave also some interesting insights. Especially about urbanization. “Should we invest in poor urban areas were most of the people will live or in rural areas were population is scarce?”. She gave also in three slides recommendations for eLearning in relation to poverty, prosperity and environment

The Next parallel session that I followed was about Developing the ICT Competencies of African

Teachers. Especially the presentation of Esther Wamuyu Gacicio, Kenya Institute of Education, Kenya “Moving Teachers’ Competencies in Curriculum Delivery to the 21st Century Learning: Kenyan Perspective” was interesting. Potential partner for the Kenya programme. In the afternoon I also had a demonstration of their content by Ruben.

Late afternoon was my own session: eLearning in Medical Education. I presented a project we had done in Malawi: “Online renewal of licenses for nurses in Malawi

The other two presentations about a medical school in Tanzania (Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Medical Education Partnership Initiative (KCMC-MEPI). Dativa Tibyampansha dativabella@yahoo.com a Learning Management System specialist) and how they use eLearning for the education of medical students and an eLearning system for nurses from University of Malawi, Kamuzu College of Nursing (Gladys Msika  head for the Medical –Surgical Nursing Department gladysmsika@kcn.unima.mw)  in collaboration with University of Edinburgh

After the presentation a very interesting and a lively session with lots of questions followed. 

Fridays plenary session was about Education Renewal Through eLearning, MOOCs and Mother Tongue. One inspirational speech about use of social media in education from Prof Dr Johannes Cronje, Professor, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa “Doing IT for Free. Reflections on Open Courseware, Open Access and Open Learning” and a thought provoking from Prof Kwesi Kwaa Prah, Director of the Africa-wide Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society (CASAS), South Africa “The Language Factor in the Integration of ICTs in African Education, Training and Development” were he asked all African why they do not create content and applications in their own local languages.

The last session I attended was disappointing. Going to Scale and Going Local with Laptops, eReaders and Tablets especially the session of Chi Jin, UNESCO Inruled, China New Media and Women’s Leadership:Pilot and Practices in China because of her presentation skills “death by powerpoint” with long stories on the slide that she read to the audience.